Sunday, June 7, 2020

This Financial Audit Report Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

The first section of this financial audit report is to briefly explain the company background of the companies of Bonia Corporation Berhad and Parkson Holdings Berhad. Following by the first section, the second section is to examine the market share price movement of the companies from correlation coefficient and regression line of the best fit, to measure that risky and prediction when invests in market share prices. Through the market share prices movements, efficient market hypothesis and random walk theory have to explain in this report. Lastly, this report also identifies the methods of security valuation methods which are needed to mention when the author wants to value the share prices of the companies. Besides that, this report also presents important of capital budgeting in decision ruling when appraises investment in projects. With the framework, author has determine the different of security valuation and capital budgeting. Bonia Corporation Berhad Company Background Bonia Corporation Berhad is mainly focuses in fashion retailing, marketing and manufacturing, which has provided high quality and fashion of leather goods. There have 883 sales outlets and 103 boutiques in around the world. The Bonias history was started in 1977 year, which Mr. Chiang Sang Sem, the Bonias founder, and now was Executive Chairman in Bonia Group, had apply Bonia of brand name because of inspired from the artwork of Giambologna, Italy. In 1980, the Bonia Group had succeed became market leader in Malaysia and Singapore and was listed on the Bursa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). Then Bonia Group had succeeded expanded and had its subsidiaries company. Now the Bonia Group has succeed added more international brands, which are Pierre Cardin, Braun Bruno, Magli, Buffel, and Renoma to its collection of brands with the gaining of 70% equity in Jeco (Pte) Limited. Corporate Goal The main corporate goal of Bonia Corporation Behad is to be the recognized international brand with lists in the public listed companies in the region. According to Bonia Groups vision, Bonia Group will establish more 30 countries and will focus in 5 countries in 2015 year. Furthermore, Bonia Group forecasts to have 1billion earnings and at least have 12% before the tax in yearly. Financial Reporting and Performance According to the annual report 2011, Bonia Groups profits have increased 28% to RM461.4million with RM54.8 million from contribution of Jeco (Pte) Limited and RM24.0 million in consignment sales Malaysia. Then Bonia Group has earned RM56.5 million before tax with 24% and RM14.8 million before tax in Jeco (Pte) Limiteds contribution. However, there still have losses of RM5.4 million from joint venture business in Vietnam. Future Forecast Apart on Bonia Groups forecasting, Renoma Cafeacute; Gallery has chosen as the master Franchisee from Licensor, Renoma S.T.A.R. for Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia and launchs 1st concept in 2012 year. Besides, Bonia Group has rebuilt the retail in Vietnam because of arguing with partner. It forecasts will be the temporary because of supporting by Vietnams departmental stores. Bonia Group forecasts to launch first boutique at Grand Indonesia Shopping Town in Jakarta. Parkson Holdings Berhad Company Background Parkson Holdings Berhad is a Malaysia investment holding company which was under Companies Act in 1965 year and has named as Amalgamated Cement Mills Sdn Bhd in 1982 year. When 1992 year, it had changed to a public company with Pakson name and had listed to Bursa Malaysia in 1993 year. It had joint venture in Parkson Retail Group Limited and Parkson Retail Asia. It has 89 department stores in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Malaysia, which 7 stores in Indonesia are under the brand name of a Kem Chicks Supermarket and Centro Lifestyle Department Store, and 8 stores in Vietnam, 37 stores in Malaysia are under brand name of Parkson. Corporate Goal Parkson Group has the corporate goal which offers more international brands to join venture in consignment of department stores. Parkson Group is using the strategy of consistent market positioning, localization and focusing Fashion, Cosmetics, Household and Electrical to achieve objectives with target of young and contemporary market segments. Financial Reporting and Performance In 2011, Parkson Group has earned gross sales of RM9.49 billion, which had increased 10% and earned operating profit of RM971 million which had increased 11%. Besides, Parkson Group also had earned the net profit RM348 million, which had increased 22%. Moreover, Balance sheet of Parkson Group maintains healthy in 2011 with funds of more than RM2 billion to shareholders. Future Forecast Parkson Group has planning to focus in expanded new retail markets to more countries. Then it has to maintain partnership with the Indonesia which has following the listing of shares of SGX-ST for future forecast. Parkson Loyalty Card programme, which is emphasized, also is the future forecast of the company to gain more consumers. Market Share Price Movement of PARKSON and BONIA Share price movement is determined to estimate the future cash flows and share price in the company. This report has done to determine the share prices movement of Parkson and Bonia. Market Share Price Month PARKSON HOLDINGS BHD Market Share Price Bonia Corporation Berhad Market Share Price Jan 5.95 1.81 Feb 5.66 1.8 Mar 5.73 1.8 Apr 5.87 1.85 May 5.92 1.85 June 7.73 1.81 July 6.12 1.81 Aug 5.89 1.73 Sep 5.82 1.65 Oct 5.69 1.72 Nov 5.81 1.96 Dec 5.84 2.07 Scatter Diagram Graph Scatter Diagram is a technique that uses to determine relationship between two months and to determine how the financial market works and the risk of company. Below is the table of monthly share price Parkson, which uses to plot scatter diagram graph market share prices. PARKSON HOLDINGS BHD Month x y Month JAN 5.95 5.66 FEB FEB 5.66 5.73 MAR MAR 5.73 5.87 APR APR 5.87 5.93 MAY MAY 5.92 7.73 JUN JUN 7.73 6.12 JUL JUL 6.12 5.89 AUG AUG 5.89 5.82 SEP SEP 5.82 5.69 OCT OCT 5.69 5.81 NOV NOV 5.81 5.84 DEC DEC 5.84 2.2.1 Scatter Diagram Graph of PARKSON HOLDINGS BHD The graph above has showed that the correlation between 2 months of the share price of Parkson, which the highest is on June RM7.73 and the lowest, is on February RM5.66. BONIA CORPORATION BHD MONTH x y MONTH JAN 1.81 1.8 FEB FEB 1.8 1.8 MAR MAR 1.8 1.85 APR APR 1.85 1.85 MAY MAY 1.85 1.81 JUN JUN 1.81 1.81 JUL JUL 1.81 1.73 AUG AUG 1.73 1.65 SEP SEP 1.65 1.72 OCT OCT 1.72 1.96 NOV NOV 1.96 2.07 DEC DEC 2.07 2.2.2 Scatter Diagram Graph of BONIA CORPORATION BHD The graph above is scatter diagram of Bonia, which the highest is on December RM2.07, and the lowest, is on October RM5.66. Based on the scatter diagram graph, it also has showed Parksons correlation between 2 months is strong than Bonia. Calculation of Correlation Coefficient However, it needs to use calculation of correlation coefficient to measure more accurately that weak and strong of correlation between 2 months are interpreting. It takes on values ranging between +1 and -1. PARKSON x y xy x ² y ² 5.95 5.66 33.68 35.40 32.04 5.66 5.73 32.43 32.04 32.83 5.73 5.87 33.64 32.83 34.46 5.87 5.92 34.75 34.46 35.05 5.92 7.73 45.76 35.05 59.75 7.73 6.12 47.31 59.75 37.45 6.12 5.89 36.05 37.45 34.69 5.89 5.82 34.28 34.69 33.87 5.82 5.69 33.12 33.87 32.38 5.69 5.81 33.06 32.38 33.76 5.81 5.84 33.93 33.76 34.11 5.84 5.95 34.75 34.11 35.40 72.03 72.03 432.74 435.78 435.78 The formula of Correlation Coefficient The answer shows that the correlation coefficient of Parkson following by the 2 months is 0.11. It means that the correlation efficient of between 2 months of the share price are weak. BONIA x y xy x ² y ² 1.81 1.80 3.26 3.28 3.24 1.80 1.80 3.24 3.24 3.24 1.80 1.85 3.33 3.24 3.42 1.85 1.85 3.42 3.42 3.42 1.85 1.81 3.35 3.42 3.28 1.81 1.81 3.28 3.28 3.28 1.81 1.73 3.13 3.28 2.99 1.73 1.65 2.85 2.99 2.72 1.65 1.72 2.84 2.72 2.96 1.72 1.96 3.37 2.96 3.84 1.96 2.07 4.06 3.84 4.28 2.07 1.81 3.75 4.28 3.28 21.86 21.86 39.87 39.95 39.95 The answer shows that the correlation coefficient of Bonia following by the 2 months is 0.38. It means that the correlation efficient of between 2 months of the share price are weak. However, it still better if compares with Parkson. Calculation Regression line of Best Fit According to Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), which had developed scatter diagram and correlation coefficient, also had identified regression line that used to do prediction. Equation of x (current share price) and y (predicted share prices) Formula Regression Line of Best Fit PARKSON Therefore, 2.2.2.1 Regression Line Best Fit of PARKSON HOLDINGS BHD is the equation line of Parkson. Therefore, it can use to predict the share prices for future. For example, if this month the share price (x) is RM6.0, And the next months share price also will be RM6. Based on the graph, it also has showed Parksons share prices are more stable. BONIA 0.38 1.8217-0.692 Therefore, 2.2.2.2 Regression Line Best Fit of BONIA CORPORATION BHD is the equation line of Bonia. There also can use to predict the share prices for future. For example, if this month the share price (x) is RM2.0, And the next months share price also will be RM2.64. Based on the graph, it also has showed Parksons share prices are more risky, if compares with Parksons regression line of best fit. Time Series Graph Time series is a collection of market share prices then shows that which month is the highest and lowest, and the upward or down turn in the market. PARKSON HOLDINGS BHD 2.3.1 Time Series Graph of PARKSON HOLDINGS BHD Based on the graph above, the share prices of Parkson has moved down on January to February and moved up again on March. The most transmutation in Parkson is on May which moved up to June then moved down again to July. BONIA CORPORATION BHD 2.3.2 Time Series Graph of BONIA CORPORATION BHD Based on the graph above, the share prices of Bonia has moved moderate in early of the year 2011. Then the share prices start move down on August to September and move up again on October. Calculation of Correlation Coefficient Same with 2.2.1 calculation for scatter diagram, now is calculate correlation coefficient of time series of Parkson and Bonia to determine the relation between month and share prices. PARKSON x y xy X ² Y ² 1.00 5.95 5.95 1.00 35.40 2.00 5.66 11.32 4.00 32.04 3.00 5.73 17.19 9.00 32.83 4.00 5.87 23.48 16.00 34.46 5.00 5.92 29.60 25.00 35.05 6.00 7.73 46.38 36.00 59.75 7.00 6.12 42.84 49.00 37.45 8.00 5.89 47.12 64.00 34.69 9.00 5.82 52.38 81.00 33.87 10.00 5.69 56.90 100.00 32.38 11.00 5.81 63.91 121.00 33.76 12.00 5.84 70.08 144.00 34.11 78.00 72.03 467.15 650.00 400.38 0.0154 0.00024 The answer shows that the correlation coefficient of Parkson following by the months and share price is 0.0154. It means that the correlation efficient of between months and share price are very weak. BONIA x y xy X ² Y ² 1.00 1.81 1.81 1.00 3.28 2.00 1.80 3.60 4.00 3.24 3.00 1.80 5.40 9.00 3.24 4.00 1.85 7.40 16.00 3.42 5.00 1.85 9.25 25.00 3.42 6.00 1.81 10.86 36.00 3.28 7.00 1.81 12.67 49.00 3.28 8.00 1.73 13.84 64.00 2.99 9.00 1.65 14.85 81.00 2.72 10.00 1.72 17.20 100.00 2.96 11.00 1.96 21.56 121.00 3.84 12.00 2.07 24.84 144.00 4.28 78.00 21.86 143.28 650.00 39.95 On the other hand, coefficient of Bonia between months and share price is. Although the correlations efficient are very weak, but it still better if compares with Parkson. Calculation Regression line of Best Fit Same with 2.2, regression line of best fit also has used to determine in time series. PARKSON Therefore, is the equation line of Parkson. BONIA 0.002 1.8217-0.013 Therefore, is the equation line of Bonia. Market efficiency hypothesis Efficient capital market, which security prices change rapidly following by new information and, therefore, the current prices of securities reflect all information about the security. It is important to analyze capital markets efficiency and understand the efficient market hypothesis because its results of researches have significant real-world implications for investors and portfolio managers. An efficient market is requires a large number of profit maximizing participants analyze and value securities. Random Walk Theory Random walk theory is defines by the fact that price changes are independent of each other (Brealey et al, 2005). Actually random walks is connected to efficient market hypothesis, which if more efficient the market, the more random of share prices will change. Investors cannot accurately predict the share prices no matter with the correlation coefficient and regression line of best fit. Thus, share prices always fully reflect the information available and no profit can be made from information based trading (Lo and MacKinley, 1999). Different Forms of Market Efficientcy According to FAMA, there have three sub hypotheses in efficient market hypotheses which are weak efficiency, semi-strong efficiency and strong efficiency. 2.4.2.1 Weak Efficiency The weak forms of the efficient market hypothesis states that share price fully reflect all historical information. It means that past rates of return and other historical share prices do not have relationship with future rates of return, which is rates of return should be independent. 2.4.2.2 Semi-strong efficiency The semi-strong form of the efficient market hypothesis states that share prices will adjust immediately and in an unbiased manner to reflect new information, which is made publicly available. This does not mean that everybody has to have the same opinions about the significance of the new information. Prices will reflect the view of the market, which will automatically be the best interpretation of the mechanism. The implication of this is that a share can never be over or under prices according to the information, which is publicly available. 2.4.2.3 Strong efficiency The strong form of the efficient market hypothesis states share prices reflect all information. This means that no investors have monopolistic access to information related to the prices. The strong form efficient encompasses both weak form efficient and semi strong form efficient. Further, the strong form efficient will get more assumption of efficient markets, to assume perfect markets, in which prices adjust to the release of new news. Technical and Fundamental Analysis Based on the study of past share prices, many financial analysis seems to be view because of capital market are inefficient. A technical analysis or chartist has occurred to predict future price movements from prices. Besides, fundamental analysis is study publicly available information such as published accounts in order to try to identify the real worth or intrinsic value of shares, which may be more or less than the share price. Anomalies in the behavior of share price Many such anomalies have been reported and investigated in the quest to understand the behavior of share prices (Fama 1998). Calendar effects There has some calendar effects have been examined, which trading at particular times of the day can lead to negative or positive returns. One study found a significant monthly effect wherein all the markets cumulative advance occurred during the first half of trading months. An analysis of the weekend effect found that the mean return for Monday was significantly negative during 5 year sub periods and a total period. In contrast, the average return for the other 4 days was positive. The size anomalies The returns from investing in smaller companies have been shown, in the long run, to be greater than the average return from all companies. One study, for example, found that small firms outperformed large firms by 6% per year (Dimson and Marsh 1986). It has been suggested that above-average returns from small companies may compensate for the greater risk associated with them, such as the risk of financial distress. Concepts Security Valuation and Capital Budgeting Security Valuation Security Valuation is the valuation on the net assets of company which willing or able to let investors invest to the company. With the analysis of valuation, investors can determine which companys share prices are under or over valued, and make the decisions in investment. 3.1.1 Asset Valuation Net asset Backing is more appropriately referred to as net tangible assent backing because it excludes intangible assents such as goodwill. And it is sometimes used as a measure of the underlying value of a companys shares in the grounds that it represents what shareholders are entitled to in the event that a company is wound up, it can then be compared with the current price of a companys shares. Parkson 1. Net Assets Method Of Share Valuation Total Assets 7,270,943,000 Intangible Assets 1,235,534,000 Total Liabilities 3,887,578,000 Net Assets Value of Equity 2,147,831,000 No. of Ordinary Shares = 1,093,673,000 Value Per Share = Net Assets Value of Equity divide; No. of Ordinary Shares = 1.964 Income Based Price Earnings Ratio (P/E) Earning Yield (EY) Bonia Asset Valuation Net Assets Method Of Share Valuation Total Assets 373,250,000 Intanglible Assets ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ 68,848,000 Total Liabilities ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ 126,263,000 Net Assets Value of Equity 178,139,000 No. of Ordinary Shares = 201,572,000 Value Per Share = Net Assets Value of Equity divide; No. of Ordinary Shares = 0.88 Income Based Price Earnings Ratio (P/E) Earning Yield (EY) Asset Valuation PARKSON BONIA Net Assets 1.96 0.88 P/E 4.46 2.30 EY 8.77 2.38 Market Value 5.84 2.07 Market Value Capitalization EY Capitalization As a result, Parksons market value has over valued, which market capitalization is RM, but had growth in. It means that Parkson has gained more profit. On the other hand, market capitalization of Bonia also has over valued which RM417, 254,040 but has growth the profit to 478,965,884. It means that the Bonia also has earned more profit. If compared with Parkson, investors are able to invest in Parkson because of Parkson has earned more profit than Bonia according to the valuation above. Capital Budgeting A capital budgeting decision is one that involves the allocation of funds to projects that will have a life of at least one year and usually much longer. Basic capital budgeting decisions determine whether there is under or over capacity in a given firm or within an industry. Whether the marketing manager gets a new product approved for production and distribution may be a function of how well he or she provides data into the capital budgeting process and understand the analysis. 3.2 Importance of Capital Budgeting A proper making decision on capital budgeting is important in increasing a companys value as well as maximize shareholders wealth. It also has involved in long-term implication for the company and might get risk in complexion. If investment projects have failed in the future, the company will have to bear the burden of fixed cost. Besides, capital budgeting is not easy to reversible because it is difficult to search market assets.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Genetically Modified Foods And The Human Body - 1159 Words

Food is needed for the growth and maintenance of the human body. A nutritious diet is the foundation of good health. Eating healthy protects your cells from damage, which is why genetically modified foods shouldn t be an option. Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Not only are genetically modified foods unhealthy for your body, but they have negative effects on many other things. Bioethics allows technology to interfere with the natural nature of our foods and how they are grown. The avoidance of genetically modified food can help better society in many ways. Genetically modified foods are known to be unhealthy for the human body. When creating these genetically modified organisms, also known as GMOs, three main components are required, the gene you want to transfer, the organism you want to put it into, and a vector to carry the gene into that organism’s cells. T he unnaturalness of this procedure can cause problems in the human body. GMOs were introduced to consumers in 1994 and since then health problems have increased. From 1996 to 2005, there was a 6% increase in health issues that occurred (Smith). In the article â€Å"Playing God in Garden† by Michael Pollan, he stated â€Å"my New Leafs are clones of clones of plants that were first engineered seven years ago in Monsanto’s $150 million research facility†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Pollan 4). This shows how severe genetic engineering is.Show MoreRelatedThe Effects of Genetically Modified Foods on the Human Body Essay1430 Words   |  6 PagesWhat are the Effects of Genetically Modified Foods on the Human Body? For many years, Companies have been using GMOs or Genetically Modified Organisms in their food products. 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Genetically modified organisms were first introduced into grocery stores in 1994 and are still on our store shelves today. Genetically modified organisms are derived as organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that do not occurRead MorePersuasive Speech: Why We Should Abandon Genetically Modified Food1580 Words   |  7 PagesPersuasive Speech: Genetically Modified Food We all enjoy a cold glass of milk with homemade cookies, a refreshing pop on a hot summer day, and a juicy cob of corn in the summer months. But, do we ever wonder what is really in our food? Because genetically modified foods do not have to be labeled, you will likely never know if the food you are consuming is genetically modified. As a fellow member of the Organic Consumers Association, I am eager to inform you of why genetically modified food is an issueRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms And Food1200 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Æ' Genetically Modified Organisms in Food Genetically Modified Organism’s were introduced back in the 1990’s; however, scientists first discovered that DNA could be transferred from one organism to another back in 1946 (Bawa and Anilakumar, 2013). It consists of organisms in which their genes have been altered. Whether it’s an animal or a plant, nothing is perfect; desired traits are scattered all around so scientists are now able to retrieve the DNA from one living organism, virus, or bacteria and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects Of Bullying On Children With Disabilities

In a society that is built on the theory in believing that everyone is created equal is also ironically home to those who partake in vilnius activities against those with mental and physical disabilities, gays, lesbians, transgenders, and finally, those who simply do not meet the qualifications of the bully. According to Bullying Statistics, children with disabilities were two to three times more likely to be bullied. Continuing from Bullying Statistics, results have shown that 64 percent of children who were bullied did not report it; only 36 percent of children reported being bullied. Luckily, there is much that can be done to effectively dissolve a fraction, if not a majority, of all bullying. If societies today want to believe in the fact that they are truly open to accepting everyone, more must be done against eradicating bullying. As time passes, more and more laws are being passed that allow two people of the same sex to marry. As expected, there have been many people who are outraged towards the belief that two people, no matter how happy they are together, can marry. What makes this worse is when those who are outraged have kids that can see and learn from their them. As the kids see how their parents act towards the idea of gay marriage, it typically transitions well within the child. When this happens, kids unfortunately display the same behavior as well. According to a survey conducted by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), results haveShow MoreRelatedBullying Those with Special Needs and Disabilities Essay1026 Words   |  5 PagesBullying is mean and mean stinks. Bullying, however, goes well beyond mean. The term is commonly defined as the use of force or coercion to abuse or intimidate others. In order to be considered bullying, the behavior must be aggressive and include an intentional act to hurt or harm someone, an imbalance of power and repetition† (Lohmann). 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According to StopBullying.gov, between 1 in 3 students in the US state have been a victim of bullying. I am currently interested in this topic because many of my clients are currently going through this. Bullying can affect just about anyone whether the person is getting bullied themselves, bullying others, or may have witnessed someone getting bullied (â€Å"Effects of Bullying,† n.d.). There is considerationRead MoreThe Long-Term Effects of Bullying Essay1409 Words   |  6 Pagesgrowing concerns and effects of bullying. Its epidemic is also starting to become closely related to the growing numbers of suicide rates amongst adolescents within the United States and across the globe. However, there are several adults that may take bullying lightly thinking that it is just a part of kids being kids. Whereas to an adolescent, bullying can cause long-term effects as they transition into adulthood. However, in order for one to examine the long-term effects of bullying one must be able

Child Care Level Unit free essay sample

Conversely, poor communication tactics can make the child feel worthless, intimidated or angry which will make the children have communication difficulties because they will be angry at the fact they can not do the same as the other children, o should always treat all children the same so If one child Is having difficulties you should try your hardest to help that child In fling what Is the problem and find a way of helping that child.To make communication easier and to avoid making the children feel confused, what you should do is first call out the childs name and make sure you have her attention and she understands what you are saying. Communicate in short sentences and ask the child to do one thing at a time. In BITE First Childrens Care, Learning and development peg. 3 it says ;communicating with adults and children In child care settings Is very different to the way you communicate with your friends so they way you have to communicate In placement Is different from the way you normally do because you are setting an example for the children even when your talking to the staff the children can see how you are speaking so you should make an effort to communicate properly. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Care Level Unit or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Communication involves using language to put your ideas across and share information, such as through listening, reading, speaking and writing. Children need good language and speech skills to interact with people and succeed In educational settings and other areas of life. If the child experiences problems communicating, they may fall behind In learning and struggle with situations that need effective communication.You should always be trying your hardest to help children with difficulties and to be observing all the children so you can spot with children may be falling behind or finding communication harder than others. In ETC First Childrens Care, Learning and development peg. 106 it says ;Many people have some form of barrier to successful communication, these may be Internal part of the person or eternal the problem of the person trying to communicate with them, for example through misunderstanding or stereotyping these are some of the difficulties below.These are some of the di fficulties children can have: Language Problems can affect the ability to understand speech. Examples of language problems include not specking the same language or specking in a different way, which makes It difficult for a child to use the correct words to state hat they mean to other and children can also have a language disorder even If they seem to produce and understand speech well.Speech Problems This may be that the children cant understand your speech or the you cant understand their speech it is normally the childs speech, their speech may include a lot of mistakes and sound poorly articulated. Types of errors found in the speech of children with speech problems. Speech problems children may have speech difficulties for many reasons and teeth problems.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Polyethene Essays - Commodity Chemicals, Packaging Materials

Polyethene Polyethylene also known as polyethylene or polythene, was the first of the polymers to be discovered. Polyethene is a polymer produced by reacting oxygen and ethene, in this reaction the small ethene molecules attach together to form long chain polymer molecules. This process is known as addition polymerisation. Polyethene in our world today has many uses, some of these are: ? mouldings-plastic bottles, lids and caps, different types of containers. ? films-glad wrap and various plastic bags. ? cable coverings-various pipes and insulating wire and cables As you can see polyethene has a huge variety of both domestic and industrial uses, this is fairly impressive when you see that polyethene has only been around sense 1933. Polyethene is a thermoplastic material which is often described as wax-like it is extremely tough and is has an excellent chemical resistance. It is also less dense than water and is the simplest polymer, these attributes lead to polythene being an extremely useful substance. Ethene (C2H4), is a simple hydrocarbon molecule which consists of 2 carbon atoms and 4 hydrogen atoms. Ethene's main use is in the production of polythene yet it is one of the most widely used petrochemicals in the world. Ethene is an unsaturated colourless gas which can be ignited in the presence of oxygen. Below is a diagram of ethene: Polyethene is produced by allowing the free roaming ethene gas molecules to bond together to form long chain polyethene molecules. In order for this to work a catalyst must be used, a catalyst is a substance that can alter the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing any chemical change itself. During this process thousands of ethene molecules bond to from each molecule of polyethene. Polyethene is simply a set of ethene molecules bonded together to form a chain, these chains can often stretch up to many many times longer than the original ethene molecule. Below is a diagram of polyethene: Although normally ethene monomers have little attraction for one another, yet the polyethene molecules have a strong attraction for one another. When polyethene molecules are attracted and bond high-density polyethene is formed, thus polyethene is either formed by low-density or high-density polymerisation. Ethene can undergo the process called polymerisation due to the fact that it is unsaturated and because it has a double bond between its two carbon atoms. Both High-density and low-density polyethene have different uses. Low-density polyethene is used in the production of products such as various bags, plastic bottles, cling wraps, and insulating cables. Low pressure polymerisation with the use of certain catalysts; has meant that the process of polymerization can be achieved at fairly low pressure (20 atmospheres or 2000 kPa) and at temperatures of approximately 100?C. The reactor itself contains a polyethene bed placed on a perforated plate. It works by allowing the recycled gas to enter near its base, the gas then passes through the plate and pushes up through the bed causing it to bubble. Finally the catalyst converts the ethene to polyethene, once the polyethene is cooled it forms a fine powder called 'fluff' which is then collected and transported to a storage bin. Any ethene gas which has not reacted passes through a compressor and then a cooler, and is processed again. High-density polyethene is used to produce items such as lids, caps, baskets, bowls and large containers such as garbage bins. These polyethene products are created in what is know as high-pressure polymerisation, this is a process that was originally used before low-pressure polymerisation was discovered and thus it is a fairly simple process. Firstly Ethene gas is compressed and liquefied, from here it is pumped into a large reactor at a pressure of up to 2660 atmospheres(266 Mpa). Amongst this oxygen and peroxides are pumped in to initiate the polymerisation reaction. This process generates a huge amount of heat so the most complex part of the system is the cooling facilities. The many products of polyethene which are most commonly used are generally manufactured using any of these five different techniques Extrusion - film, this technique is used for the production of items such as plastic bags such as garbage bags and glad wrap. These are the most common applications, while there are many others these are the best examples of this technique. This final product is achieved by blowing air into a tube of molten plastic this allows for extremely fine layers of the plastic to form. Blow moulding, this is used to make plastic bottles and some motor oils. This technique is much like the previous

Sunday, March 15, 2020

John Ashcroft

John Ashcroft, President Bushs nominee for the position of Attorney General, was born on the wonderful spring day of May 9th, 1949. He grew up in the town of Springfield Missouri in an extremely religious family. His father was a Pentecostal preacher and enforced strict house rules, including punishing his children for dancing. Ashcroft attended Yale University, graduated with honors, and went on to the University of Chicago law school. While there, he me his wife, Janet. John fathered three children, and has one grandchild. He has also fathered three books. Two of these were college textbooks co-authored by his wife, and the other one, entitled Lessons from a father to his son, is about the many lessons that Ashcroft learned from his father. Before entering into the political world, John Ashcroft taught business law at Southwest Missouri State University, a school in his hometown. He soon got totally enveloped in the political world, taking on positions such as the Governor of Missouri, Chairman of the National Governors Association, and Missouri Auditor (just to name a few). The one that probably caught the eye of the man he was appointed by was the position that he held as the Missouri Attorney General in 1977. Also, Ashcrofts excellent economics history may have influenced Bush a bit in nominating him for the position as Attorney General. Ashcroft balanced eight consecutive budgets as the Governor of Missouri. Also, during his term as Governor, Missouri had the 49th lowest tax burden in the nation. Ashcroft was credited by Financial World and City and State magazines with making Missouri one of the best financially managed states in the entire country. J. Ashcroft is also the only member of senate to have a ! perfect voting record against wasteful government spending. Two of Ashcrofts biggest focuses are on protecting social security and economic opportunity (or, in other words,...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Any topic relating to Macroeconomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Any topic relating to Macroeconomics - Essay Example The exchange rates have a close impact on the exports and imports of the country because when people exchange goods across borders they want to be paid in their own currency and hence the need to exchange value and an exchange rate arises. There are certain benefits and certain disadvantages associated with each and every trade system and so does the free floating exchange rate, the free floating exchange rate is the basis of uncertainty in the economy because there are no blockades at any end for the free floating exchange rate to be limited, it fluctuates rapidly and hence the environment for trade and investment is not a very feasible one. Another added disadvantage of this type of this kind of an exchange rate is the element of speculation. The advantage of the exchange rate system is that it balances the balance of payments and the governments do not have to worry in this regard. b)Dirty Floating: dirty floating, as the name implies is managed exchange rate systems, these systems are managed by the central bank of the country and it basically determines boundaries within which to keep the exchange rate value, if the rate crosses the maximum value then the central bank supplies more into the market so that the rate falls down and when it rises exactly the opposite happens. The advantage of having such an exchange rate system is that it adds a lot of certainty to the trading and the investment procedures and cracks down on speculative measures. The disadvantage of this system is basically to the government because it has to take measures to control the whole system and also the added responsibility of the balance of payments falls squarely on to the shoulders of the present government. c) Fixed exchange rates: In this type of exchange rate systems the rate is fixed at one point and the government should be ready to buy and sell as soon as there are any